Q. How much area does one yard of concrete cover? A. At a depth of 4", one yard of concrete will cover an 8' x 10' area (80 sq. ft). At a depth of 5", one yard covers 65 sq. ft. At a depth of 6", one yard covers 54 sq. ft. At a depth of 3.5", one yard covers 93 sq. ft At a depth of 3", one yard covers 108 sq. ft Q. How much does one yard of concrete weigh? A. A single yard of concrete weighs roughly two tons (4000 pounds) Q. What is the stand by time? A. You are given 10 minutes per yard to unload the truck. Any time after that is \$2 per minute. Q. How many wheelbarrows does one yard fill? A. Depending on the size of the wheelbarrow and how full you fill it, one yard generally fills 9- 10 wheelbarrows.

 Q. How long does it take for the concrete to set up? A. It all depends on the temperature of the day. In hot weather the concrete sets up quicker (couple hours). In colder weather it can take up to 12- 24 hours to set up. Hot water and additives may help increase this time. Concrete is cured (full strength) in 28 days. Refer to "curing" under the Tips for Homeowners section. Q. How big are the trucks? A. The trucks are 10 feet wide at the mirrors, about 8 feet wide in the back and 12.5 feet tall. When fully loaded they weigh 54,000 pounds.

TIPS FOR HOMEOWNERS:

Thickness : Four (4) inches is generally a sufficient depth for parking areas, driveways, hot tub pads etc. More depth may be beneficial to areas that are higher traffic or will contain heavier loads.

Base: Compacted earth may be entirely adequate as a base for residential concrete, however compacted rock is recommended in all applications of concrete placement. Base rock is usually ¾" minus to 1" minus crushed.

Drainage or slope: The surface of the finished slab should slope at least 1/8 inch per foot away from structures for drainage. A slope of ¼ inch per foot is best.

2. PREPARATION
Excavating: Remove all organic matter and sludge, but don't excavate deeper than necessary. Place base rock of a minimum 2 inches.

Compaction: Soil on which concrete is to be placed must be compacted uniformly and evenly so the slab won't settle and vary in thickness. This also prevents shifting and cracking of the concrete in the future.

Concrete Forms: You can form a 4" slab using 2 x 4's. Remove any loose materials from the edge to insure full thickness around the perimeter of your pour. Stake securely.

Joint Material: A barrier separating existing concrete from new concrete is necessary, and must extend to the bottom of the slab to insure complete separation. Pre-molded material can be used, and should be placed against existing buildings, slabs, steps, walls, etc.

3. CONCRETE SPECIFICATIONS
Strength: 3000 P.S.I. (5 sack mix) should suffice for most projects. The higher the concentration of cement (reflected in the sack mix or p.s.i. - pound per square inch), the greater the curing strength. Regardless of the mix, complete curing will take about 28 days.

Slump: A slump of about 5" is normally sufficient. A slump greater than 4" will extend the time needed for finishing, especially in the cool weather. Higher slumps will also increase the potential for shrinkage and cracking.

Admixtures: Various products are available to accelerate or retard setting, reduce water content and increase the plasticity of the concrete.

4. PLACEMENT
Calculating: Measure the length, width and depth of the area that will be filled with concrete. A one inch difference in a 10' x 10' pad means approximately 21% more concrete, so measure carefully. Calculate the amount of concrete needed. There is a calculator on this site for you to use.
Call Mini Mix Concrete to reserve a delivery time slot for the amount of concrete needed. Allow 1 -2 days notice during the winter months and roughly a week's notice in the spring and summer months.

Filling Forms: Chute, wheel or shovel the concrete to its final position rather than dumping it in piles and then pushing or raking it to the desired location.

Leveling: "Screed" the concrete. Screeding is the process of leveling the concrete by using a 2 x 4 in a sawing motion over the concrete. It is also recommended that the forms be gently tapped from the outside to eliminate any air pockets. Immediately use wood or mag bull float to level out the high and low spots. At this time you can also edge the concrete with an edging tool. Do not do anything more to the surface until the water sheen disappears.

5. FINISHING
Timing: After the water sheen is gone (the water is done bleeding to the top), joint, edge and texture as desired.

Final finish: A broom finish is the most common finish, particularly for driveways, sidewalks and other exterior areas. A broom finish is also recommended for areas that may get wet and slippery. Machine floating and steel troweling are not recommended for exterior surfaces.

 Joints: Control joints can be added with a hand tool or a saw, and must be cut at least ¼ of the thickness of the slab. Joints must be continuous and straight; not staggered or offset. The spacing is 10 foot max, and square sections are preferable. Control joints should be made after all finishing and curing applications are done, and as soon as the concrete has sufficiently hardened to allow sawing without raveling. Over-finishing: Over-finishing is the single biggest contributor to surface deterioration. Over-finishing pulls too many of the fine materials to the top, thus weakening the surface strength. Also, do not use a steel trowel on concrete that will be exposed to the weather.

Curing: Newly cured concrete should have a period of uninhibited exposure to the air before being sealed. A surface cure can be applied after final texturing is complete, and should not mar the concrete surface.

6. CURING
Curing is one of the most important steps in concrete construction. Effective curing is essential to good surface durability. Fresh concrete must be kept warm and moist until the water and cement hydrate (combine chemically). This is what hardens the concrete and gives it its strength.

Warm weather: The most common method of curing is to spray or roll the slab surface after finishing to prevent premature drying. The rate of application should be consistent with the manufacturer's instructions. Water can be used in place of a cure if the surface can be kept wet for three days.
Cold weather: Newly poured concrete cannot freeze for at least a week. Only adequate insulation or heating will maintain proper curing temperatures during freezing weather.

Do not use a curing method that will allow the surface to dry in a short time. Concrete that dries too quickly is more likely to show surface cracking. Membrane curing is not sufficient, nor does the use of accelerants prevent concrete from freezing.

7. TIMELY TIPS
First Winter: Do not use salt or other deicers during the first winter. Use sand instead to improve traction. Even light applications of salt, or salt carried on cars may cause severe scaling of newly placed concrete. Fertilizers are not an acceptable deicer at any time.

Drainage: Proper drainage will help avoid saturating the concrete.

Sealing: Sealing and curing are not the same. Water repellent coatings or sealers inhibit water from getting into surface pores and help prevent damage from freezing, thawing and salt. Newly cured concrete should have a period of air-drying before being sealed.

CAUTION - CONCRETE MAY CAUSE EYE OR SKIN INJURY

Mini Mix Concrete contains Portland cement. Use of this product without protective clothing could cause bodily injury. Every effort should be taken to avoid contact with skin. If any cement or cement mixtures get into the eye or comes in contact with the skin, flush immediately and repeatedly with water and consult a physician promptly
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